Assessment Literacy Standards for Building Administrators

Crosswalk to the Michigan School Improvement Frameworks
School Improvement Framework/Assessment Literacy Standards Crosswalk (SIF/ALS for Building Leaders)

Assessment Literacy Standards for Building-Level Administrators

I. Dispositions 

Building-Level Administrators should believe that:

A. All educators must be proficient in their understanding and use of assessment.
B. An effective assessment system must balance different purposes for different users and use appropriate assessment methods to measure different learning targets.
C. When assessment is done correctly, the resulting data can be used to make sound educational decisions.
D. Multiple measures can provide a more balanced picture of a student or a school.
E. Quality assessments are a critical attribute of effective teaching and learning.
F. Assessment results should be used to make instructional decisions that impact learning.
G. Clear learning targets, understood by students, are necessary for learning and assessment.
H. Effective feedback is critical to support learning.
I. Students should be active partners in their learning and assessment.
J. Students can use assessment results to improve their learning.
K. Time and resources are needed to:
       1. Learn to select or develop assessments
       2. Administer assessments
       3. Use the assessment results appropriately

L. Good classroom assessment and quality instruction are intricately linked to each other. 

II. Knowledge

Building-Level Administrators should know:

A. A balanced assessment system consists of the following:
       1. Different users have different assessment purposes
       2. Different assessment purposes may require different assessment methods 

B. There are different purposes for student assessment:
       1. Student improvement
       2. Instructional program improvement
       3. Student, teacher or system accountability
       4. Program evaluation
       5. Prediction of future performance/achievement 

C. The definitions of and uses for different types of assessments:
       1. Summative assessment
       2. Interim benchmark assessment
       3. Formative-assessment practices
       4. Criterion vs. norm-referenced assessment interpretations
       5. Difference between the types of assessment tools—achievement, aptitude, diagnostic, screening and placement 

D. The differences between the types of assessment tools:
       1. Achievement
       2. Aptitude
       3. Diagnostic
       4. Screening
       5. Placement and Selection 

E. The different types of assessment methods and when teachers should use each:
       1. Selected response: Multiple-choice, True-False, Matching
       2. Constructed response: Short or Extended written response
       3. Performance: Written responses, presentations or products
       4. Personal Communication: Observations and interviews 

F. Non-technical understanding of statistical concepts associated with assessment: 
       1. Measures of central tendency
       2. Measures of variability
       3. Reliability
       4. Validity: a characteristic of the use of the assessment, not the assessment itself
       5. Bias/sensitivity
       6. Correlation vs. causation 

G. How to develop or select high quality assessments:
       1. Determine the purpose for assessment
       2. Determine the standards or learning targets to be assessed
       3. Select the assessment methods appropriate to learning targets and assessment purpose(s)
       4. Design a test plan or blueprint that will permit confident conclusions about achievement
       5. Select or construct the necessary assessment items with scoring guides where needed
       6. Field test the items in advance or review them before reporting the results
       7. Improve the assessment through review and analysis to eliminate bias and distortion
       8. Assessments can be purchased or developed locally; each approach has advantages and challenges 

H. There are two ways to report results, and specific circumstances when each is useful:
       1. Normative interpretations
       2. Criterion-referenced interpretations 

I. Assessment data that validly reflects a teacher’s effectiveness

III. Performance

Building-Level Administrators should promote a culture of appropriate assessment use by:

A. Promoting assessment literacy for self and staff through
       1. Professional Learning Communities
       2. Targeted and Differentiated Professional Development
       3. Walk-throughs (data collection – goal setting)
       4. Educator evaluation practices (i.e., program, teacher, and administrator)

B. Providing the time and support for staff to implement a balanced assessment system by providing opportunities to develop skills in:
       1. Using instructionally embedded formative assessment
       2. Administering assessments
       3. Scoring/Analyzing results
       4. Developing instructional plans based on results
       5. Developing school improvement plans based on results 

Building-Level Administrators should promote the use of assessment data to improve student learning through the alignment of curriculum and instruction by:

A. Implementing district-developed learning progressions.
B. Assuring horizontally and vertically aligned curriculum, instruction and assessment in the building.
C. Leading dialogues with staff in interpreting results and creating goals for improvement.
D. Clearly explaining how to analyze and use assessment results.
E. Assisting teachers in collaboratively analyzing and using data in professional learning community.
F. Using assessment results, including subgroup performance, to influence the school’s curriculum and instructional program.
G. Using multiple sources of data over time to identify trends in learning.
H. Using assessment data to reflect on effectiveness of teachers’ instructional strategies.
I. Incorporating assessment knowledge in evaluation practices (i.e., program, teacher, and administrator).
J. Clearly communicating results to various constituents through a coherent communication system that uses a variety of methods.
K. Using data management systems to access and analyze data.